• film

Independent Frames: American Experimental Animation in the 1970s and 1980s

Exploded View

Get Tickets
Thursday 1/18
7:00 pm
$10 General Public
$8 Students & Seniors
FREE Lightbox Members & IHP Residents

FOR FILMS AND EVENTS PRESENTED BY IHP, Tickets ARE Also Available From the IHP Box Office, which is normally open Tue-Sat from noon-8pm (or, for events outside of those times, from one hour before until one hour after the scheduled starting time).  call 215-387-5125, menu option 2. 

Artists discovering animation in the mid-1960s and early 1970s did so in a culture of pop art and psychedelia and a discursive field strongly shaped by Marshall McLuhan’s media theory. They responded by creating overwhelming works of graphic collage, violent flickering colors and sensory overload. Exploded View begins with a look at several foundational works from animators whose explorations of radical form and content stood out in the 1960s, from established figures like Stan Vanderbeek and Disney animator Ward Kimball to lesser-known, underground artists such as Fred Mogubgub and Irene Duga. It continues with several visually-kinetic works by young animators in the mid-1970s, a rarely-seen experiment in three-dimensionality by Paul Sharits, and concludes with Bill Brand’s stroboscopic colorfield film Circles of Confusion.

Film-Makers’ Showcase

Francis Lee/Fred von Bernewitz, 1963, 16mm, 3 min.

Jungle Madness

Don Duga, 1967, 16mm, 6 min.

You’re Not Real Pretty But You’re Mine…

Frank Mouris, 1968, 16mm, 6 min.

The Pop Show

Fred Mogubgub, 1966, digital, 7 min.


Stan Vanderbeek, 1968, 16mm, 9 min.


Paul Glabicki, 1976, 16mm, 3 min.

America is Waiting

Bruce Conner, 1981, 16mm, 4 min.


Frank and Caroline Mouris, 1975, 16mm, 5 min.
Print courtesy of the Academy Film Archive

Evolution of the Red Star

Adam Beckett, 1973, 16mm, 7 min.

3D Movie

Paul Sharits, 1975, 16mm (with anaglyph 3D glasses), 8 min.

Circles of Confusion

Bill Brand, 1974, 16mm, 15 min.

Independent Frames is supported by the Christian R. and Mary F. Lindback Foundation and the Cinema Studies Department at the University of Pennsylvania

Independent Frames: American Experimental Animation in the 1970s + 1980s


This series examines the work of a group of American artists who approached film through independently-produced, frame-by-frame animations in the 1970s and 80s. Made primarily by artists with no formal animation training, the selection of films in this programme incorporates autobiography, visual fantasy, abstraction, medium specificity and biting satire. Several works were broadcast at the time and others distributed on home video, affording these artists a level of success and reach beyond that which other artist-filmmakers of their era could attain. Building on the work of earlier generations of experimental animators such as Mary Ellen Bute, Standish Lawder, Harry Smith and Stan Vanderbeek – some of whose works are included in these screenings – this new generation of filmmakers elaborated on inherited techniques and proceeded to pioneer their own. Some artists explored cel and hand-drawn animation (Sally Cruikshank, Suzan Pitt, Mary Beams) while others explored new directions in kinetic collage (Frank Mouris, Paul Glabicki). Some used flicker and abstraction (Robert Russett, Adam Beckett, Barry Spinello) and others explored the affective potential of film through psychedelic fantasy (Sky David, Lisa Crafts). Through five screening programmes, Independent Frames: American Experimental Animation in the 1970s + 1980s highlights themes of the body and sexuality, abstraction and psychedelia, structure and composition, autobiographical reflection and the influence of commercial animation. Lending historical context to recent developments in both animation studies and the role of animation in contemporary art, the series is a timely investigation of this era of invention and energy in experimental animation, suggesting a landscape of artists whose work needs to be considered anew.


Independent Frames is curated by Herb Shellenberger.